Rabu, 10 November 2010

Check It (1) a : Artikel Yang Tak Perlu

Ada tiga kata sandang (article) dalam bahasa Inggris: a, an, dan the. The dikenal sebagai definite article, sedangkan a dan an sebagai indefinite article. Salah satu kesalahan yang paling sering dilakukan oleh pembelajar bahasa Inggris adalah penggunaan definite article the yang tidak perlu.

1. Di depan nama makanan (hidangan)
Dalam bahasa Inggris, nama hidangan (sarapan, makan siang, makan malam) tidak didahului oleh article the.

SALAH: The discussion will begin after the dinner.
BENAR: The discussion will begin after dinner.

Contoh lain:
Call me when lunch is ready.
The children watch TV after supper.
They did not have breakfast.

Jika nama suatu hidangan digunakan untuk menunjuk makanan, maka digunakan difinite article ‘the’
It is time for supper. The supper is in the dining room.

2. Di depan kata benda yang berimbuhan –ism atau yang mengacu pada ideologi.
Kata-kata benda berimbuhan –ism atau yang menunjuk kepada ideologi tidak didahului article apapun.

SALAH: Can the communism coexist with the capitalism?
BENAR: Can communism coexist with capitalism?

Contoh lain:
Are you for or against democracy?
In some countries, workers work for the cause of socialism.
Protectionism hinders international trade.

3. Di depan mata pelajaran atau mata kuliah.
Nama-nama mata pelajaran atau mata kuliah tidak perlu didahului article.

SALAH: Professor Smith will speak on the latest development in the chemistry.
BENAR: Professor Smith will speak on the latest development in chemistry.

Contoh lain:
Most study mathematics in school.
Photography is his favorite hobby.
Are you familiar with these subjects: linguistics, philosophy, economics, psychology, anthropology and computer science?

Ketika nama sebuah mata pelajaran atau mata kuliah digunakan sebagai adjective dan khusus, maka digunakan article.
The chemistry lesson was boring.

4. Di depan kata benda material
Kata benda material adalah uncountable (tak dapat dihitung) dan biasanya tidak digunakan bersama article.

SALAH: We make the bread with the flour.
BENAR: We make bread with flour.

Contoh lain:
Most Asians eat rice.
Gold is a preciuos metal.
Man cannot live without air, water and food.

5. Di depan kata benda abstrak
Kata benda abstrak biasanya adalah uncountable dan karena itu tidak digunakan bersama article.

SALAH: The experience is the best teacher.
BENAR: Experience is the best teacher.

Contoh lain:
Justice must always be upheld.
He always takes pride in his work.
Beauty is but skin deep.

Ketika kata benda abstrak itu khusus, article the digunakan.
The bravery of the Spartans was known far and wide.

6. Di depan nama yang mewakili gelar atau jabatan
Tidak diperlukan article untuk kata benda yang mewakili gelar atau jabatan.

SALAH: David has just been commissioned as the captain.
BENAR: David has just been commissioned as captain.

Contoh lain:
Mr. Shen served on the ship as second mate.
Because of William’s remarkable military service, he was promoted to colonel.
Charles Dickens, author of many famous novels, was sympathetic towards the poor and the downtroodden.

7. Di depan nama lembaga atau organisasi umum
Nama-nama lembaga atau organisasi umum seperti: school, college, prison, hospital, church, market, court dll. tidak memerlukan article jika lembaga atau organisasi sedemikian dihubungkan dengan fungsinya.

SALAH: When children grow up, they are sent to the school.
BENAR: When children grow up, they are sent to school.

Contoh lain:
They go to church on Sunday.
Tom left college last year

Kata benda lain yang termasuk pada kategori serupa adalah: bed, table, town, sea dll.
Children should go to bed early.
Uncle Chan seldom talks at table.
Shelley has just returned from town.
As fishermen, Ahmad and his friends go to sea almost every day.

Jika tempat umum tertentu diperlakukan sebagai bangunan khusus, digunakan definite article. Bandingkan contoh berikut.
He goes to school.
She wants to go to the school to see her son’s teacher

The ringleader was sent to prison.
She went to the prison to see her son.

Many people want to to go university.
Don’t go. He will not be in the university at this time.

8. Di depan kata benda proper
Article tidak diperlukan di depan kata benda proper seperti nama orang, negara, dan tempat.

SALAH: They study in the England.
BENAR: They study in England.

Contoh lain:
Brown’s best student is Susan.
I like to work in Singapore.
Do you know where Mount Faber is?

Ada beberapa perkecualian:
the Philippines, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, dll.

9. Di depan nama bahasa
Nama-nama bahasa tidak didahului oleh article.

SALAH: Some of the students speak the Mandarin very well.
BENAR: Some of the students speak Mandarin very well.

Contoh lain:
Can you write in Malay?
I do not understand French.
Most of them speak a little Japanese.

10. Di depan nama penyakit
Nama-nama penyakit tidak didahului oleh article.

SALAH: More and more people today die of the cancer.
BENAR: More and more people today die of cancer.

Contoh lain:
Many people in the past died of tuberculosis.
Many old women suffer from rheumatism.
Hypertension usually goes hand in hand with arteriosclerosis.

Beberapa penyakit umum seperti toothache, stomachache, lever, cold dll. bisa menjadi kata benda terhitung dan didahului indefinite article. Jika secara spesifik menunjuk pada penyakit tersebut, definite article mendahuluinya.

The little girl has a toohache. She has been complaining about the toothache.
Don’t go to work if you have the flu. The flu will worsen if you go on working.
The baby had a high fever last night. The fever was controlled without delay.

11. Di depan nama olah raga dan pertandingan
Tidak diperlukan article untuk nama olah raga dan pertandingan seperti swimming, jogging, wrestling, tennis, cricket, football dll.

SALAH: I like to play the football.
BENAR: I like to play football.

Contoh lain:
Do you like swimming?
Wrestling is a stenuous sport.
Which do you prefer, volleyball or basketball?

12. Di depan nama warna
Tidak diperlukan article di depan nama warna.

SALAH: The blue is my favourite colour.
BENAR: Blue is my favourite colour.

Contoh lain:
Green is a pleasant color.
Some young people today like to wear black.
You must be able to tell black from white.

13. Di depan nama musim, bulan dan hari
Di depan nama musim, bulan dan hari tidak diperlukan article.

SALAH: Mary went shopping on the Saturday.
BENAR: Mary went shopping on Saturday.

Contoh lain:
The new school term begins in January.
We teach practically every day, from Monday to Saturday.
When winter is in, spring should not be far behind.

Jika nama musim, bulan dan hari disebut secara khusus, maka nama-nama tersebut didahului definite article.

In the winter of 1976 she met with an accident.
I shall be going to the States in the fall.

14. Di depan kata benda jamak yang digunakan secara umum
Jika sebuah kata benda jamak digunakan secara umum yaitu ketika kata benda tersebut menunjuk kepada kelompok orang, benda dll. maka tidak ditandai dengan definite article.

SALAH: The dogs are faithful animals.
BENAR: Dogs are faithful animals.

Contoh lain:
Men are mortal.
I like to read novels.
They are teachers.

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